09 Spring Southwest Network University Educational Evaluation and Measurement answer (full)
1, Norm: After statistical processing and set up the test point and the reference scale having units according to the standardized test scores sample.
? 2 derived score: raw score is based on the conversion, according to certain rules, after statistical processing obtained a certain reference point and units, and can be compared with each other's scores.
? 3., Relative zero, zero artificial determined. Educational measurement reference point used in general is relatively zero, because education is a variety of psychological factors, absolute zero can not be found, a student exams got a zero, not that he knew nothing about the content of the examination, only shows his level exam to be lower than the measured level.
? 4, sample behavior: the behavior of a group of samples are extracted, and behavior as a direct measurement of the object. In psychological tests have a representative sample, that sample behavior.
Second, the short answer questions
1, the meaning and source of measurement error
A: refers to a measurement error in the measurement process is a variation of those factors unrelated to the purpose of measuring the resulting measurements inaccurate or inconsistent effects. Here, we have to be understood in two ways: First, measurement errors due caused by those unrelated to the purpose of measuring: Second, the measurement error performance in inaccurate or inconsistent in two ways. There are three main sources of error, i.e. measurement tool, and the measured object Surveying process.
2. Features percentile rank scores.
A: The larger the percentile rank values, indicating that the more outstanding achievements.
3, two tests should be what kind of conditions are met can be called parallel test
A: If two different test subject is measured the same qualities, and the form of the title, the number, difficulty, discrimination and the distribution of scores obtained after the test check equivalent groups are the same, then this is referred to two parallel tests test.
4, the greater the difficulty of the test discrimination, the better, right?
A: Wrong. In fact, if all the projects tests are medium difficulty, inherent only in projects related to 0, the entire test scores only produce normal distribution. The actual tests, generally have some degree of correlation between each item, taking into account this point, we analyze the choice of questions, the difficulty of the project should be widely distributed some gradient larger, the difficulty of the whole test distribution and utilization projects a normal distribution, and to maintain an average level of 0.50. So can the various levels of people to distinguish, and differentiate too thin.
Third, the essay questions
1, in order to improve the measurement validity, what measures can be taken.
A: To improve the measurement must try to control the validity of civil random errors, systematic errors reduced, while particularly apt also select a good criterion, the validity coefficient calculating out accurately. Specifically, the validity improve the measurement methods are:
(A) well-prepared test scale, to avoid the system error.
This requires a good topic to be able to say on behalf of a sample to be measured content or structure, to avoid the subject bias.
At the same time, the degree of difficulty of the subject, but also to distinguish between proper reading, the number of items should also moderate. Too hard, too easily, too much, too little is detrimental to measure validity.
In addition, print a test paper, entitled to answer the requirements of the standard score scoring entitled meaning of the expression, etc., must be strictly checked to avoid all avoidable errors.
(Ii) test well-organized, random error control.
In the test process embodiment, the system error is less obvious, but there may be random error control. This requires testing the perpetrators must be in strict accordance with guidance language manual operation, to minimize interference unrelated factors.
(C) the creation of a standard examination situation, so that each test can play a normal level.
In various tests, some subjects often for various reasons should not play level (such as excessive levels of anxiety disorders and other causes), therefore, we should let the subjects change their attitude exam, get them from physical, psychological on the knowledge finest prepared as they should. Otherwise, anxiety and other factors unrelated to the impact is too large, it will inevitably reduce measurement validity, undetectable want to test the validity of the content or structure.
(D) selecting the proper criterion, the appropriate criterion will be a good measurement, correct use on formulas.
When evaluating a test is effective, efficient choice is an important aspect of the subject. If improperly selected criterion or selection criterion can not be quantified, it is difficult to correctly estimate the empirical validity of the measurement. If the criterion and criterion measurements are desirable, the selection formula also affect important aspects of validity estimated.
2, with practice instructions on how to report test scores to the test subject.
A: To make subjects himself and the subjects were related to people, such as parents, teachers, employers, to better understand the significance of the score, pay attention to the following questions when scores in the report. Language understood by the parties. Like other special areas, like quiz, with its own specialized vocabulary, so you understand the word does not mean that the parties must also understand. For example, you know standard deviation and standard scores, but the parties could not understand. Therefore, you must use the term non-professional standard scores to explain, it can be interpreted as the relative position (i.e. percentile rank). If necessary, you can ask whether the parties understand, let him talk you explain what that means. To ensure that the parties know what this quiz to measure or predict anything. There does not need to make a detailed technical explanation. For example, you do not need to explain to the parties the preparation process of vocational interest questionnaire, it should let him know, career interest inventory is to his interest and engaged in various occupations compared. If a high score in one area, it means that if he took part in this work will be long-term stay here. But on the other hand, we can not be too simple, just tell the parties the title of a scale or measuring what is not enough, which is particularly important in personality characteristics have emotional aspects of color. For example, personality tests in the masculine, feminine scale will be explained, in order to avoid misunderstandings subjects. If the score is a norm-referenced, to make the parties know what he is and organizations making comparisons. For example, with a percentile rank for ordinary schools and key schools meaning it is different. For just a fraction of the parties recognized that the "best" estimate. As the reliability test, the lack of validity, scores may be errors, but also for a group overall, effective tests are equally effective is not necessarily for everyone, but do not let the subjects felt no score is enough to believe. To make the party knew how to use his score. When tests for personnel selection and placement issues, and this is particularly important. To clarify the party, what role test scores in the decision process, the choice is entirely determined by the score, the score was only as a reference; there are no minimum scores; lower scores on tests can compensate by other aspects, such as Wait. To consider test scores will give the parties what psychological impact. Due affect the interpretation of the score by the test subject's self-awareness, self-evaluation, which will affect his behavior, so on the one hand to be very careful when interpreting scores. On the other hand we had to do ideological work necessary to prevent the subjects due to low scores and high scores or because of despair and complacency. Let the parties actively involved in the interpretation of test scores. After all, his score is not your decision to make will affect his life instead of your life, so at various stages of interpretation of scores, you should observe his reaction, encouraged him to ask questions. Although limited information test scores, but considering the scores can cause a chain of events, seriously affect a person's life, so you must ensure that he fully understand the surface meaning and implications of the score. Unless the parties to actively participate in this process, otherwise you can not understand how much he had understanding for their scores.
1, the sample: Extract from the entire set of samples out as a measurement object.
2, retest reliability: if the pre and post-test using the same copy paper (as two parallel test), measured before the correlation coefficient between the fraction X rXY and post-test scores is the reliability Y, said to retest.
3, the correction standard: standard correction inner cylindrical general shape. Inside, is the essence of the school, the kernel, meaning schools within the party firmly implement the Party and state education policy, the school guiding ideology, school principles, clear educational goals; outside, is the school's external performance, meaning the school cylindrical the flexible educational method, and has a full range of social contact.
4, raw score: after receiving the test subjects, according to the standard scoring of the test, a control test was calculated by the reaction of the test score.
? Second, the short answer questions
?, The relationship between test reliability and validity 1.
? A: The high degree of faith is a necessary but not sufficient condition for high efficiency; validity of the test is governed by its letter of degrees.
2, the main features of psychological and educational measurement.
? A: Psychological and Educational Measurement rule based largely just a theory, it is difficult to achieve as measured in accordance with the laws of physics as commonly accepted level; the measurement object is a human psychological traits and educational achievement; measuring tools are compiled by experts in relevant fields; far less than the accuracy of physical measurements. High believed necessary but not sufficient condition for high efficiency; subject to the validity tests of its reliability.
3, norm-setting process.
A: (1) determine which group will test for. According to the test group, selected the most basic statistics, it decided to allow the limit of sampling error, on the basis of the design of specific sampling methods, and the population sampled to obtain the norm group.
(2), to be administered test norm groups, members of the group and obtain the distribution of scores and test scores.
(3) determining the type of score norm, the norm fractional conversion table production, i.e. norm scale, and gives extracting written description norm groups, and the norm score interpretation guidelines.
A: after receiving the test subjects, according to the standard scoring of the test, a control test was calculated by the reaction of the test score. Score is derived units and having a certain reference point on the basis of the converted raw scores, according to certain rules, obtained after the statistical processing, the scores and can be compared with each other.
Third, the essay questions
1, how to control in the measurement error of the measurement.
A: To make the accurate and reliable measurement, it is necessary to reduce the error; to a control error, the error must be 0 understand source. Common sources of error in three main areas: an error (a) test itself due to (ii) the error Surveying process caused in the implementation of testing of the factors that may cause errors many as a test environment, the time, the main trial, accidental interference , score score and so on. (C) the error is caused in the test measurements, the most complex and difficult to be controlled by the test itself is the cause of various errors. Measuring tool; measured object; Surveying process.
2, compared with other personality tests, projective tests the basic principles of what it is.
A: personality test, that is a standardized measurement tool for personality traits, which according to the theory of personality, personality characteristics inspect testers from certain aspects, embodied in the personality quiz is based on various measures of self-report personality tests mainly, breaking the previous get in the way of personnel information to "comment that he" has always been based approach. Participatory role, of course, he can comment fully reflect public opinion, but also increases the subjective consciousness. Personality test methods can put aside direct dependency on other personnel involved in the evaluation, between the main resort to the individual evaluators and measurement tools - Relationship "stimulus reaction". This can effectively avoid the artificial participatory role in the personnel selection process, but also doomed the prudence of a good tool for the development of psychological tests and the complexity of the role. Projection theory that evaluation, interpretation of test subjects themes can reflect their mental function. Projective test preparation psychologists believe that the daily human reaction, of course, depends on the time of stimulation or situation, but their own personal mental state at the time, and his past experience and expectations for the future and so on, then the perception and reaction the nature and direction, have undergone great role. We often feel the inner feelings and projected to go into the environment, assuming that the face of vague and open-ended stimulus situation (test subjects), individuals are free to imagine consciously or not it make all kinds of reactions, which will be a person of some potential deep motivation and personality traits projected out; the content due to the different stimulation perception each person's experience, therefore, the same reaction was made impossible. Therefore, the analysis result of the reaction, can prompt a person's personality and form deep motivation, which is the basic principle of projective tests.
The third operation
1, the individual test: means that the main trial of a test subject can be measured by tests administered at the same time.
? 2, Score: Press certain rules to process raw scores into export scores.
? 3, the absolute reference point: absolute zero as a starting point measurements.
? 4, personality: a person relatively stable psychological characteristics and behavioral tendencies.
Second, the short answer questions
1, how to understand the psychological traits.
A: psychological traits refers to a person's performance in a relatively stable behavior.
2, what conditions to use test-retest reliability must meet Yes.
A: The psychometric properties of the measure must be stable; the effect of exercise and forgetting the basic cancel each other out; twice during the interval period of Surveying, subjects in terms of psychological characteristics to be measured investigation did not get more learning and training.
3, to improve the reliability test which strategies can be taken.
A: (1) increase the length of the test due to an appropriate number of items is too small will reduce the reliability of the measurement, therefore, a common method for measuring improve reliability is to increase some of the better homogeneity test items having the original item, increasing the length of the test. (2) the difficulty of all the quiz questions is close to a normal distribution, and controlled moderate level. (3) efforts to improve the discrimination test questions. (4) Select the proper test group is improved in reliability tests on each of the homogeneity of a strong sub-groups. (5) the main trial measured strictly enforced rules, raters strict standards to the sub, the measured field arranged according to the requirements of manual tests, factors unrelated to reduce interference.
4. What is the difference with the target reference test norm-referenced test object.
A: A basic starting point is the difference between the measure and compare individual psychological and educational measurement of the relative position in the group of subjects to assess and interpret measurement results. Gradually developed on this basis a relatively fixed test pattern is a norm-referenced test, which is widely used in capacity, measured in a variety of qualities of aptitude, achievement, personality, attitude, and development from a relatively sophisticated statistical analysis method for the analysis items, quality control (test reliability, validity analysis) and a fractional interpreted into. The so-called target-referenced tests, the test is based on a clearly defined range of content and careful preparation, and subjects the results obtained in the tests, but also directly interpreted in accordance with a clearly defined standards of conduct. The main purpose of the test is to understand the target reference level of individual behavior on the measure specified content, so the starting point is the absolute level of the individual itself, rather than the level of individual differences.
Third, the essay questions
? 1, how to control the standardization of tests.
A: The so-called standardized test preparation refers to the administrated, scoring and interpretation of test scores of the degree of consistency. Specifically, standardized tests include the following: (1) test content, standardized primary prerequisite is that all subjects were administered the same or equivalent test questions, test different content, the measured results can not be compared. (2) Surveying process, the second condition is standardized for all test subjects to be administered in the same test conditions. These include: ¢Ù the same test scenarios. Such as uniform lighting conditions, unified chair height, unified desktop area, uniform layout, and other places. ¢Ú the same guidance language. INSTRUCTIONS generally consists of two parts: First, to explain the purpose of the test subject tests, in order to eliminate the concerns of the test subject; the second is to explain how the test subject response to the test project. ¢Û Test same time. Quiz time limit is an important aspect of the test program. (3) test scores, scores of objectivity is the third condition of standardized tests, scoring objectivity means that two or more raters to assess with a test paper is consistent. (4) test scores explanation, a standardized test, refers not only to the test material, and administered standardized test scores during the process, but also to standardized interpretation of test results. If you can make a different interpretation of the same test results (scores), then the test will lose objectivity.
2, compared with other personality tests, what the characteristics of the projected test.
A: To investigate the unconscious projective test focuses on psychological characteristics of people, to explain the subjects were reflected in the tests inevitably influenced by psychoanalytic theory. According to the unconscious psychoanalytic theory point of view, individuals can not understand their own personality characteristics on its own sense of function, therefore, impossible to use self-report questionnaire to measure the true personality characteristics of the test subject. If we somehow not determine the significance of the stimulus situation as a guide, the test subject will unknowingly own unconscious wishes structure, requirements, motivations, psychological conflict in the interpretation of the projected stimulus situation in. From this theory, projective test assumptions: (1) Explanatory people react to external things, there are psychological reasons, but also can provide an explanation and prediction; (2) how people react to external stimuli While the decision to the exciting feature presentation, but the personality characteristics of responders in the past formed his mental state at the time and his hopes for the future and other psychological factors can also penetrate in his reaction to stimuli and their results; (3) because of individual personality unconsciously penetration in his interpretive response to stimuli scene, so by offering some vague sense of context to stimulate the test subject, so that subjects who make their own interpretation of this situation, then by analyzing he explained the content, it is possible to obtain the understanding of the personality of the test subject itself.
I. Glossary title
? 1, form reliability: means that two parallel tests measuring the same subjects degree of agreement of the results obtained, which size is equal to the Pearson subjects with two copies of the batch tests related to the resulting fraction coefficient.
? 2, proper fraction: the subjects reflect the value of the true level of some kind of psychological traits.
? 3, projection: the individual psychological characteristics of their thoughts, attitudes, desires, emotions, personality and other psychological tendency to unconsciously react in the interpretation of things.
4, random errors: the measurement caused by unrelated purpose, causal factors, but difficult to control errors.
? Second, the short answer questions
1, interference measurement validity what factors.
A: constituting the test itself, the characteristics of the subjects tested, Surveying process, marking score, score conversion and interpretation of all aspects related to measurement may affect the validity of the measurement.
? 2, how to choose a test project.
A: The choice test items there are three indicators: First, the nature of the tests, that is, to choose those things that can be measured by measuring the project. If you want to measure is the verbal reasoning ability, reading ability on the project or measure of computing power can not be selected. But the difficulty of the project. Select how difficult projects no fixed criteria, selection of the required test more difficult, exploratory tests require not too difficult, the difficulty is not required personality tests. Third, the discrimination of the project. In general, the higher the better discrimination of projects, especially for the selection of the test, but sometimes it can keep several projects discrimination is not high, depending on the importance of the project may be.
3, the role of confidence in what areas.
A: (1) Reliability measurement is present during the size reflect random error (2) reliability can be used to interpret the meaning of the individual test scores (3) Reliability can help in comparing different test scores
A: The differences in culture and education (1) gender differences (2) occupational differences (3)
Third, the essay questions
1, the actual instructions how to interpret test scores to the test subject.
A: How to report test scores to the test subject, so that they better understand the significance of opinion scores is very important. Some of the principles listed below, when reporting test scores available for reference: (1) using a language understood by the parties. For example, you know standard deviation and standard score, and subjects who may not know, so you must use a non-technical terms to the standard interpretation of scores, it can be interpreted as the relative position (i.e. percentile rank). (2), to ensure that the subjects were aware of this test to measure or predict anything, there does not need to make a detailed technical explanation. For example, you do not need to explain to career interests test subject, and will be with him in a variety of occupations, and if a high score in a certain area, it means that if he took part in this work can be long-term stay here. (3), if the score is a norm-referenced, it is necessary to give the parties know that he (she) is and what groups making comparisons. For example, through a percentile rank for ordinary schools and schools focus their meaning is different. (4), to make the parties recognize that the score is only an estimate. (5), to make the party knew how to use his score. When the test on personnel selection and placement of this issue is of particular importance. (6) To test scores will consider what effect the test subject by. (7), test results should be irrelevant personnel confidentiality. (8), the interpretation of low scores should be careful cautious. For example, IQ tests ID get 65 who do not make this explanation: "You belong to mental retardation with." Ideal interpretation should be: "This score represents your ability to learn lower than the average person a little, but some like you human capacity, due to the hard work and have a very good performance. "(9), report test scores should try to understand the psychology of the feelings of the parties, and to take appropriate measures to guide. For example, a student said he was in the mood to do intelligence tests is very bad, absent-minded; while another said that when he was doing tests, strong motivation, focus. Although the two student ID to get the same 115, but the significance may represent different back then. Similarly, after the completion of the score interpretation should encourage the parties to express their feelings on the test results, such as the parties find scores a misunderstanding or bad attitude, immediately accompanied by counseling, be appropriate guidance to avoid inferiority complex or other adverse effects to the parties.
? 2, how to develop standardized achievement test chemical.
A: As long as the preparation of standard achievement test chemical in the case of a number of additional standardized conditions, these principles and techniques used in the preparation of school achievement test. (1) determining the test object, the test method of the preparation selected. The most important issue to develop standardized achievement test chemical is to clear test objectives, namely to solve and why the measure, test and measurement who the question of what. (2) analysis to measure the target, the development of test construction plan. Analytical measurement objective is to develop the most important and most difficult test construction of a work plan. (3) Compiling intrinsic problem with the test paper topic. The questions were a major component of the test is to test the level of quality of major experience. Questions can be organized sources of sentences teachers themselves write, but also to solicit community. Whether or write your own collection to the public, distribution of questions must be consistent with the preparation of test plans set by the test after the holiday, especially to written questions in strict accordance with the requirements of testing a two-way breakdown, breakdown in the ranks do not write the questions. Compiling, require the proposition while providing peace Alto Answers standard reference for moderation. (4) Investigation quality parameter test, the preparation of test norms issued standardized tests to be used, must provide a quality test parameters, including test the reliability index, validity and so on. (5) written exam guide book, published. Quiz meet the required quality, the norm has a good job, then the words of the final stages of preparation, and that is to write test instructions, along with choreographed papers (including the answer sheet) printed with the official release.
I. Glossary title
2, scale: a continuous body can be made of the number of the digital characteristics of things.
3, percentile rank: in a group of test scores, the score is lower than the percentage of the number of scores.
4, Test Groups: the same master sample can be measured at the same time a number of test subjects.
? Second, the short answer questions
1, the structure and characteristics of the meanings of validity.
A: construct validity is the extent of a theoretical structure and characteristics of the test actually measured to be measured, or it refers to a certain extent able to explain test scores structure or trait of Psychology. By definition, we can see the construct validity of the study has a number of the following characteristics: (1) the size of the construct validity depends primarily on the psychological traits presupposed theory. (2) When the actual measured data can not confirm our hypotheses, it does not necessarily indicate that the test validity is not high, because there may appear theoretical assumption does not hold, or the experimental design can not be properly test the hypothesis and so on Happening. This makes the construct validity of the acquisition more difficult. (3) construct validity is measured by what, what is the evidence does not give up the determined cumulative measurement, it is not possible with a single index number to describe the structure of validity. With different content validity, construct validity is mainly used in some aspects of intelligence test psychological tests, personality tests and so on.
2, psychological and educational measurement functions.
A: Psychological and Educational Measurement functions mainly in two aspects: (1) theoretical research function ¢Ù to collect research data. In many studies in psychology and education, we need to get first-hand information to pass. ¢Ú build and test hypotheses. In the study of psychology usually we need to make theoretical assumptions based on existing research results tests, then further test this hypothesis pass. In educational research, for example, to compare jiaoui measures the actual results, you need to use education to obtain a measurement test scores, and the scores were statistically compared. ¢Û The packet. Psychological and Educational Testing and experimental methods can also be used to combine research work. (2) practical applications ¢Ù talented people. In education, business, military, art, sports, personnel and other departments, people are often faced with the problem of selection of personnel, which is the need to identify those most likely to succeed. ¢Ú staffing. With the development of social production, personnel division of labor is getting smaller, different jobs require different people to do, do all kinds of different people for different types of work, by means of psychological and educational testing can make and things to do optimal allocation, so that their talent, improve labor productivity. ¢Û psychological diagnosis. For those who identify mental retardation and mental disorders is an important driving force to promote the development of psychological tests. ¢Ü description of the evaluation. Application of Psychological and Educational Testing may be made to the people on the advantages and disadvantages of intelligence, academic achievement, personality traits and other psychological traits describe and evaluate, so a person who knows his strengths and weaknesses, in order to avoid weaknesses, learn better, work and life. ¢Ý counseling. Applied Psychology and Educational Testing data obtained can be used as a basis engaged in psychological counseling work.
3, the empirical method of determining validity.
A: The empirical method for determining validity can be divided into the following steps: (1) a clear idea of ??criterion (2) to determine the relationship (3) Investigation of test scores and criterion measure measurement criterion.
4, how to understand the relative degree of distinction.
A: Generally speaking, the difficulty is a relative term, and it's technical experience in test construction, test content, statistical calculation method and so on. Similarly, discrimination project is relative, usually related to the following aspects: (1) different calculation methods, the resulting discrimination value (2) different sample size Size on discrimination of correlation values ??of the magnitude (3) grouping criteria impact identification index value (4) the degree of homogeneity of the sample of the present effect size discrimination value
Third, the essay questions
1. Determine the norm group what issues should pay attention to.
A: limit (1) constitute a group must be clear. In determining the norm groups must clearly illustrate the nature and characteristics of the population to be measured. For example, Eysenck Personality forecast (EPQ) is gender, different age groups established norm. (2) a norm body must be measured representative sample population. (3) the sampling process must be clear and detailed description. (4) the sample size should be appropriate. Sample size should be determined generally Note: the overall number; nature groups; accuracy of the test results. (5) norm group must be near when. For example, Rui Wenzhi force test, a few years ago the revised norm for today may no longer be applicable, will have a high IQ or income trend. (6) Note that the specific binding general norm Norm.
2, aptitude tests generated background.
A: (1) support the theory of intelligence in the theoretical study of psychometrics, the g factor has been put forward Speer full attention as well as generally recognized, resulting in the traditional intelligence tests and on the basis of extensive application and in society. Vernon intellectual chromatography theory, the intelligence was further subdivided, showing a tree structure, general intelligence factor is divided into several major capacity factor, and finally zinc dust for many basic ability factor. In the development of such a theory of intelligence structure, the development and application of analytical methods of factors played a decisive role, which makes a variety of factors intelligence capabilities contained capable of being distinguished, classifications and definitions, thus making these capabilities factors targeted measurement possible. Push (2) With the practice of social development, school and professional career choices and job counseling, management and scientific personnel work becoming more common. As psychologists and educators, one of the practical issues they care about, it is to guide young people to choose and pursue their favorite professional and will work to make a difference; as personnel managers, their primary task is to selection of people are interested in coming out as a job and fully capable of, and everyone will most likely placed in his play on the job expertise; and for everyone, they also hope in the face of school or employment options, a clear understanding of the extent of their own advantages and disadvantages in terms of the ability of different factors, making it possible to determine the most effective direction of their development. In the course of all these decisions, the ability of the test will be one of the most important aids. Due to the urgent social need to be able to distinguish between the individual and determine intra-individual differences in the ability of different factors and at a time when existing capacity tests - intelligence tests can not meet this requirement, at the same time, factor analysis and the general intelligence in the Category ability to distinguish various factors possible implication, aptitude test came into being. In 1941, Thurston in support of his theory of intelligence, compiled and published the first Aptitude Test - basic mental ability test (PMA), the main measure five abilities factors: language skills, the ability to count, and perception speed, reasoning and spatial relationship between cognitive ability, the purpose is to understand and predict student learning in the course of. Since there are many technical defects of the test, which is now rarely used, but it has important historical significance, capabilities developed for this tendency after a pioneer in the quiz. In recent decades, rapid development aptitude test, the new test after another, and a large number used in the community as an effective tool for decision-making aid personnel selection and placement and so on.
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